I imagine the whole human form as a marvelous twisty tied balloon figure like a street entertainers make for children. The fashioned other connective tissues are the conforming surface of this single fantastic balloon which is filled either with muscle proteins or the crystal of the bones or the tissue of the organs or nerves, and through that twisting, folding, bending, and shaping movements of development starting with the embryo, the recognizable human form ultimately emerges balloons within balloons, within balloons, all universally related through the connective tissue matrix on in through the Cytoskeleton, one muscle, one body. I use the term muscle fluffing to describe the process of differentiating the muscle layer with my hands or a scalpel. This process generates more or less the familiar forms taught in the anatomy courses and represents an opportunity to observe and thoroughly feel into the many relationships which comprise the depths of the muscle layer for every emotion, every human response, every thought. There is a corresponding whole body signature of Tanya's throughout the muscle layer.
Each one of us in the human community represents the signatures of joy and sorrow, exhilaration and fear, compassion and love through the outwardly visible motions of our muscle layer. Our emotional expressions rooted in both cultural and personal habits are patterns traced one way or another by and in our muscle layer.
So this is some filler tissue actually filling in this triangle over the scapula where we've run out of traps we run out of what's this Ms. Dorsey? So that's what this thing on lifting up is here. It's, it's also has vasculature in it. It's no less important if we have a half an inch thick, fibrous fascicle tissue filling in a gap between muscles. The muscles are famous, but the Fascia isn't very famous. But golly, if it can't become bound up and require a, the introduction of movement and freedom of action, range of motion, etc. Some more of that ephemeral fas, the ever, ever present and ever disappearing fas that underlies these various muscles.
Just like this is reminding me of one of was differentiating the superficial fashion and other shot a while back and you can kind of peek underneath and this long arc of tissue and see what's underneath. Here's attacking down spicy. The fuzz isn't thin here. It's very thick, right? It becomes a more durable structure at this point. And I have to work my scalpel a little bit more firmly to lift up the trip. Easiest muscle at this, uh, point coming up towards the spine of the Scapula. It's very thin.
And then as we travel up along here cause thicker and thicker and thicker toes, quite sturdy at this point and found underneath it, I can begin to lift up and peek under the trap and see what's under there. Not as thick as in the area where it wraps around and attaches to the arm. We do these overlying fibers, [inaudible] Dorsey or they over lie the inferior margin of the Scapula. Here we'll see that and scapula. I'm reaching underneath the lads and touch the scapular.
So the lad actually comes all the way up over this inferior most portion of the scapula. So you could say, wow, this is the lat attached to the bottom angle of the scapula. Well sure, I just had to peel it off there. It was attached to the fashion. It's not that the fibers are attaching to the scapula here of the Muslim, but there certainly is an ex. It's tied in to this whole fashional triangle here and then kind of stuck down on it. So there certainly can be limit cycles of motion created in the arm based upon the relationship of the lat to the Scapula.
You can see my fingers sweeping under here and I'm getting hung up on various fibrous relationships between the back of the left and the thorax. So now I'm fluffing. The lab from the other side is coming up and up and my fingers are meeting in the middle. That's nice.
Is there a vessel in there? [inaudible] yeah, there's a little bit of artery in there. A little vein here as we come through. So the blood vessels of the body are actually tying our musculature together through fashional sheets. It's not, the fluffing only happens as a result of breaking through a row. Relationships of the vasculature and the nerve tree reaching out from one layer to the nother, from the inside to the out from the core to the periphery, from the trunk of the tree to its branches and its lens and its, its leaves. It's not just floating there. It's tied in through the fashion. So if you're ever working the musculature, bear in mind that it's not an independent structure, but it's a structure that's in relationship that's buried in Fascia, that's sewn in through the Fascia, that penetrated by vasculature and nervous tissue, which themselves are structuring elements of the body.
The bulky is part of it is this section here on the side. It's very thin elsewhere and then it comes back down to a sort of a ribbon as it as it slopes around as a sweeps sweeps and dies and twists. So what a, what a spectacular broad muscle it is all the way down in the back and this. So here's a muscle of the arm sweeping your arm when reaches out, reaches out from your sacrum. Better yet from your feet, right? If you support them movements of your shoulder girdle and you have your hands even from your feet, you can have the support of the earth and you're moving.
If you support the movement of your hands from your elbow, you're going to have a sore elbow, maybe even a sore wrist and etc. So very nice trap
The muscle fibers themselves, those proteins yield value them and they fall apart. Uh, whereas the deep fascist Marcel fibers that they do all the scalpel in the same way, the skin dulls the scalpel, uh, very readily. Whereas the superficial fashion, it does not dull the scalpel. So that's another way to get a sense of, in terms of the differences between the layers of the body. See I'm marking out the line of the Trapezius as it comes through here while I shave into this little spot. Anyway, what I was saying is when we're talking, when we're having a layered conception of the body, the fibers, a dancer, layers like the skin and the deep fascia and the, the bags of the viscera
Something might become more fibrous, whereas the muscles, you can have huge muscles or, or a little once Matt can change over your, your life as you, I used to do bodybuilding, my muscles were much bigger and I quit bodybuilding. My muscles got smaller. You know, if I gained a lot of weight in my fatty layer, I could change my shape completely. But I'm, I'll, it'll be rare that I would change my shape based on the expansion of the thickness of my skin or my deep fascia. So peeking through this window. Now I've gone, I've gone fairly deep into it and I'm actually uncovering,
Or is it, uh, you know, the tonicity of the muscles and maybe it's just, uh, the way you feel them half the world that day that's getting you down. People often look to the nervous system to try and understand the tone us of musculature. And, uh, I don't, I, I, I actually look to the emotional life and the will because muscle tone is, is a, is an ethical question more so than a physiological one because I can't tell you how many clients, um, lying on your table, uh, aren't really all that tense. And all of a sudden you find you're actually working their resistance to you and it's about your relationship with them. So you'll have a person who says, oh, work deeper, work deeper, and you'll work deeper and you'll work deeper. And they'll say, oh, you've almost got it, but not quite. And you'll go a little deeper and you'll actually find that you're butting heads with this person. You're in a contest to see who's stronger.
They can provide more resistance than you can provide leverage. And sometimes they win, sometimes you win. But if you shifted their relationship, you might be, I'll talk for five minutes and they'd be soft as butter. It's ultimately their responsibility to let go, uh, and, and, and not yours to make them like go.
And that in turn is going to cause that that stiffness in the muscles. So the complaints that clients get for muscle ache really be more facially related in this grizzle like we call it rather than muscle at all.
So here's another septum. You see this white line, that's the deep fascia. Having dove down all wraps around and yet it dives down and creates these compartments and I can just hear it a little easier to tease the uh, flexor digitorum superficialis away from the Septum.
I have not completely exposed the Septum. My seat was similarly colored. I didn't notice it before. Yeah, I have a whole slip of the deep Fascia here. I can tease off and underlying that we start to see the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis again, the tendon of the flexor Carpi radiologists. And I'll keep teasing back the septum here with my thumb tray so long.
This is an easy one to differentiate this time, unlike here where the muscle fibers are attached into the Septum on this side, they yield quite readily and I can spread my, my musculature apart, differentiate it quite easily. Oh, this is a nerve here. The ulnar nerve. Here's the Ulnar artery, and I saw these beautiful little tiny arteries feeding the muscle all along the way on either side here, feeding the flexor digitorum superficialis here again and here feeding the flexor Carpi all Nerice who just to, we got the median nerve go through. They're going through the tunnel on the thumb side. Well that's a good a shot as anyone ever needs to carpal tunnel, Huh? Yeah, it's good for my eyes on the nerve tissue.
That's neat. Now. Pretty. Hello? Wow. It's just too pretty holiday. The median nerve now. So some are way underneath. Oh, they're not going to believe this. This is great. The arteries, C and s artery. I've never seen it.
Yeah. As I lift it, we can see here. Incredible fine, thin fibers like cotton candy, Chaz. I pass my finger through it. It's going to disappear.
It's like a salmon skin and then beneath it we see the silvery fibrous tendon is quality of the Vastest Intermediate Allis beneath the rectus femoris. Here. When we trim the tissue, then we are differentiating it even more, but I like to just acknowledge it that it doesn't exist like this. You have to, you have to dissect away these intermediate tissues in order to demonstrate the muscles is independent structures. The muscles are not independent structures. The muscles are, are created structures. So I'm creating a Grisaille is here by cutting away that fatty tissue by C. Look at this. Now I feel you see my hand passed under here.
That's fashioned there right now. This is the muscle tissue and the fashion that's relating it to the next muscle. But watch if I go and take my finger and pass it through here and Yank back and forth right, and it gets a little top if I ain't too much off, watch your finger with a scalpel. Now if I act too much, I'll tear it as it gets a little delicate. When you start ripping the fascist, there's nothing to hold in a muscle together anymore. And the and the muscle will rip itself. So you have to be a little more delicate once you've poked, if you're near.
But now look, now I've created this thing. It's a fake. I cut off his blood vessels. I carved this nerve supply, cut off the Fascia around it one way or another. But now I've created a muscle that's in the flashcard book called Chrysalis and it muscle on a flashcard book is drawn just like this and it has its origin and insertion. It's attaching up here at the pubic bone and then it's attaching down there, the peasants, there's beneath the knee. Okay, so which is it? I think that the reality of the matter is that it's a, it's a tissue balloon and so connective tissue balloon filled with certain proteins that are contract dial and it's simply an aspect or dimension of a much more complex array of balloons.
And yet if we want to talk about it, it's fun to, it's fun to take Priscilla's for Fart in a sense and defined just a muscle tissues. I'll cut here and we'll get down to its tendon. So you, it comes down to attend and now look, if you look at it carefully, you have all this muscle tissue here, right? Everyone knows muscle cells is surrounded by connective tissue. Each set of proteins is, is buried and connected tissue. Now look at here, it's getting skinnier and skinnier. The muscle proteins are petering out. And what's happening is all that connective tissue that was wrapping those muscle cells are continuing on. And so what you have here, it's like a water balloon in a water-skiing drained out of it, right?
So by the time you get down to here, there's no more. Yeah, it's just a balloon. All empty, empty balloon. And then that that's in that balloon doesn't really attach. It doesn't attach like a snaps on to your leg. It doesn't attach in that way. It arises from those tissues.
It's in relationship with him. You have to cut them apart. It blends into them. It melts into them and yeah.
Although it does not represent, uh, functional units because an anatomical conceptions of musculature are very different than the functional units, which are the motor units. And we see the atlases. You only see the drawings of the artists. They're tending not to draw in the little yellow lines. They're cleaning the tissue up quite perfectly. So you would
There can be a tremendous amount of bulk to the muscle layer. There can be a tremendous amount of bulk to the superficial Fascia layer. Where does the skin and the deep Fascia are never bulky? They can be extremely fibrous. They can be tough, they can be leathery, they can be strong, but they're never bulky.
Look at the incredible convergence of tissue textures. The abductor magnus tendon first cord like diffuses into a fibrous sheet and then diminishes in thickness again, blending into the translucent periosteum of the femur. The sacking around the knee is comprised of many layers of fibrous thick Fasha, which themselves blend with even thicker ligamentous structures. The loose area or fatty pad softens the relationship of the muscular action relative to the bone and the muscle tissue itself. Tissues within the body are highly differentiated and specialized despite their complete continuity. We can see this slack that builds up in the, in the, in the Achilles tendon and the Soleus NFI Dorsiflex the foot.
We can see, uh, the stretch that comes into the tendon is fibers that are really running in many directions here and they're coming this way, no coming this way, coming this way,
And here I s here's that filmy layer we've encountered and I'm differentiating out this filmy layer. The filmy layers are like veils that hide the tissue from us and in some sense the the Sulman off the person who's exploring inner space and diving into the body has to master a certain amount of courage to blast through a veil. To see the next level of the form. If you're not willing to pass through the veil, you'll never get to the other side of it that's tucked so beautifully, so elegantly, isn't it awesome? Look at how it just slides. It's lived there, a total life.
And this attendant has never had an independent existence until this very moment. So I'm going to cut around this way so I don't want to hurt the gluteus maximus, of course. And we see here actually where are the Gluteus maximus tissue? The muscle tissue is rooting into the bone of the femur right here and then higher up the gluteus maximus tissues are rooting into the this material of the tensor band. So I can continue to differentiate. Now having noticed these things, and we can see the biceps femoris dividing at this point, and it sends down a bulk of bunch of fibers right into this fibrous septum between the vastus ladder Alice here we have vastus lateralis hanging in its heaviness here, and the septum between Vastus lateralis.
And we know where this Septum came from. It was spun off of the deep Fascia. Can you see these beautiful stripes? Look at them going in both directions. Come in close to this and a peak. It's quite amazing. So we can see in a particular hamstring of the hamstring group that borders the border of the hamstrings and the quadriceps, the Vastus lateralis here, and the short head of the biceps here.
Short head, long head, short head. The long head goes further, the short head stopped short. That's how it got its name attaching down by the fibular head. The short head of the biceps comes on in to this Septum of Fascia and ultimately to the Femur, which this Septum of Fascia connects to. And here the long head travels all the way up, all the way, all the way in its mid midpoint. It's sort of joining up here.
We can see how the long head joins up with the next major muscle here attaching down. So they form a common tendon where they attach onto the issue of tuberosity here. So this muscle, if I follow it down in the other direction along the knee, becomes thinner and thinner and eventually forms a long tendon. It's Semitendinosus. It's partly tendonous this muscle, so that's how it earned its name. And if I take the deep fascia away from Semitendinosus, we freshen it up a little bit. That way you can see that Semitendinosus has this tremendously long tendon.
Now that's wrapping around with Chrysalis and Sartorious into the Pez and Sarah's the goose's foot in the front of the knee. So here my finger is running under the tendon and Semitendinosus and I traced the muscle all the way up to where it joins into the Fascia of the long head of the biceps femoris. And ultimately together they attach here, they root onto the bony issial tuberosity, the sitz bones. So that's a nice demonstration of three heads of the hamstrings. So we have the short head of the biceps, the long head of the biceps, the Semitendinosus with its long tendon reaching around the knee.
You'll notice intervening deep to the Semitendinosus and the biceps femoris muscle is plenty of fatty tissue and it's a filmy tissue of filming fatty tissue and I can just scrape it away. It's very thin here as this gentleman. As we noted when we looked at a superficial Fascia, it was quite a thin fell off, relatively speaking. And we see this beautiful shiny tissue coming out here underneath that film. And we can give it a name too. Golly, this is very membranous.
You might say we had one muscle that was semi tenderness and this one is semi membranous. It's semimembranosus see how it has this long flat membrane. We'll call it a membrane for the sake of the naming, but otherwise we're usually calling this tough, fibrous, beautiful, uh, connected tissue. In this case, it's a tendon. Okay. And that beautiful shiny tendon is coming up and attaching way up here. I can feel it. So now I'm tracing out the, the semimembranosus through the it's compartmental division with the abductor group. So this is going to be a Dr Magnus coming through here, covered with this tissue. So semimembranosus is quite glorious.
You always find a fatty layer deep to the hamstrings running over the blood vessels of the thigh deep near the bone. So I'm just going to scratch at it a little bit because deep to this, this beautiful, comforting fatty layer here are the great vessels of the leg running posteriorly. So we get behind the knee and the popliteal space and it's very fatty. That's the way it is. It's soft and smooth and wet and fatty, and I'm going to trim away some of this so we can see the vascular structures that underlie this thin fatty layer. It's not a thick layer, it's just a thin filming layer. I want to be careful so I can preserve the structures underneath.
It's not going to scratch at it a little bit and break through that film to reveal not only this, well, it's the pathway of the Cyana. No, but also the the artery, the artery. This is the nerve. You're going to just be blown away by this nerve. It's like a garden hose running through here to see this thing that's a, now this is the biggest nerve we run across in this dissection so far. Huh? We just keep going and go, Oh God, wait, there's a monster. Huh? Look at that. That is unbelievable. Look at that nerve.
Holy Cow. It looks so much bigger versus it's enormous. It's like it's a mile long running from way up here and it runs all the way down right over the femur embedded in that yellow fatty layer. So maybe that yellow fatty layers is something we should be trying to get rid of. Maybe that yellow fatty layer is actually keeping your cyanic nerve wet and cozy, I think it is. And then we come down into the popliteal space here and the sciatic nerve [inaudible] will begin to divide here. If you look at it as a very shocking blue or area, nice shock absorbing, it kind of keeps it, keeps it protected tissue from the constant stream. Just put upon the knee.
Now here we look and we see that this dyadic nerve is dividing. It's kinda divided into the tibial nerve and the peroneal nerve. And it does that right here in this popliteal space. So there's our division. So we have this huge monster cable running down here. Remember your nerves are, it's a wet system, it's chemical, it's also watery and electrical.
So here we have this beautiful nerve and I hope you can all remember this for the rest of your lives because it's just so spectacular. The cyanic nerve
Similarly in the leg, there is no obvious place for the ananymous to divide the so-called Semitendinosus muscle from the long head of the biceps Femoris, which are as equally common joined along their common tendon as are the short and long heads of the so called biceps femoris following the grain of the tissues, I prefer to reflect those three together and call them the n shaped muscle of the leg. The new [inaudible] femoris. An identical arrangement can be seen in the end shaped muscle of the arm, which we might call the new ward humorous. Again, the naming of muscles is more rooted in anatomical convenience and historical preferences rather than any precise structural necessities or functional realities in the leg. The short head of the biceps roots to the femur just as the corco breakout routes to the humerus. The long head of the biceps of the arm matches the Semitendinosus of the leg. What could be systematically presented is in fact rather arbitrary and sometimes fanciful.
I emphasize this to warn folks against placing any stock in the name to muscles as functional units. Use the name muscles as a learning tool to familiarize yourself with the shapes and landscapes of the body and then go beyond those devices to a deeper understanding of what is actually there in the body.
The initial tuberosities align of the Gluteus maximus muscle coxix
So this is gluteus medius fiber underneath this tough Fasha. So if I slide my finger on this side of Gluteus Maximus, I can actually meet up to where I tunneled through on the other side and fluff the gluteus maximus at this edge and I'm cutting through the attachment of the Gluteus maximus.
I knew I missed a fiber or two there. Try not to lift up
At this point I have to cut the Gluteus maximus off of the back of the Femur, has a strong fibrous attachment here. Otherwise, the gluteal tuberosity. Wow. Awesome. Oh, nice lucky. No, look at that same,
Here I demonstrate the success of layers of the gluteal muscles while maximus slides over the bony trow cantor, the media, some minimus arise from its upper surface. The boney surface of the pelvis is revealed underneath, partly scraped of periosteum from the scratching away of muscle fiber from its broad surface. And then of course the psychotic nerve passing beneath the Piriformis muscle tissue. I hooked my finger underneath the belly of the quadratus femoris and we can see the convergence of the remaining rotator tendons up close with quadratus femoris reflected the obturator. External [inaudible] comes into view. Finally, I cut the common tendon shared by four rotators of the hip blending into the bone and they come away together like a quadriceps [inaudible] terrace.
The four headed muscle of the big bump, even with all of the muscle tissue removed, the very thick and ligamentous sacking of the joint presents a remarkable example of movement filled transition from one boonie balloon to another.
This is separated on its own. I didn't touch it. You see how it
That's where I think I was going before I remember. And now we have the, Ooh, look at that. So now it's real clear. This sacred spine is living ligament in the sacred tubers ligament, and it's real clear how that Piriformis goes through the greater psychotic for Ramen or notch above the sacred spinus ligament where the Piriformis was and then after it or internists come sue though lesser sciatic notch or the lesser psychotic for ominous formed by the sacred spinus and the sacred tuberous ligaments is not something you can see on a skeleton because the ligaments aren't there. Usually
We have the Scarpa's Fascia that was mentioned as an underlayment beneath the a superficial fashion. Then we have the deeper layers of the rectus sheath [inaudible] and cutting the rectus sheath down to the level of the musculature of the rectus abdominis muscle. I'm in essence cutting
If you can follow that there probably 10 different ways you could reveal these tissues. I'm doing it this way because well seem like a good way to go. I'm just noticing this additional layer here.
I build the inguinal ligament by taking away a whole deep fashion around it and the tissue here that I have down a wall scrolls, scrolls up on itself here to form this tough band of tissue between the pubic bone and the anterior superior Iliac spine. Call that the England I'll ligament, but again, just like the rent's inaccurate, nothing independent about it until we create it that way. I think this gentleman is going to have muscle called pure modality as well. She's a, sometimes there are sometimes not muscle. I'm down a layer there. See you there.
I've gotten into the layer of the internal oblique. You can see the fibers of the internal oblique here and here and here so that could get sticky. I'm willing this lift up here instead and divide internal from the external so it looks like at this point the anterior rectus sheath is receiving contributions from both the internal and the external oblique. It changes as we go down from superior to inferior. Exactly which other abdominal muscle is contributing Fascia
When tell me fascists are stretched normally maded down tissues present internal structure as a web like Alice during her adventure underground, so Minot descends down without necessarily knowing where the bottom is. Here I interchange an actual funnel web of a spider. The analogy is exact with the human tissue here and we can only marvel at what other vistas lie within our form as yet undiscovered before you know we're back down to, it's an internal oblique.
Take the time to become familiar with the layers of your own form, the qualities of sensation which you notice there. Pay attention to your emotional state as well. Do love and appreciate the particular area of your body or do you actually dislike it is the liar and your sensations they're familiar to you or new and surprising. When you invite yourself to a greater sense of awareness and appreciation for the layers of your own body, it becomes possible for you to lead others in positive and healing experiences of their own. Now we can turn our attention for a few moments to the relationship of muscle to bone.
It's an extremely diverse relationship within the human forms. Sometimes we need to scrape muscle from bone. Other times it comes in through a cord like tendon. There is cuff like material, uh, at the major joints of the body here at the humorous, much thinner than what we saw at the hip joint, but still like a fabric. The muscles converge over the bony tissue.
Here we have tendons interwoven with one another in the hand, and then we find also that muscle fibers will themselves root onto the tendons of other muscles. As in the case of the lumbricals of the hands and feet, the Tibialis anterior, uh, is painted on to the surface of the Tibia and it's full length. Uh, other muscles will route down onto the periosteum of the bone and the transition of periosteum spanning from bone to bone that we call the Inter osseous membrane. Here we see the Tibialis posterior being scraped away from the Interossei CEUs membrane spanning the bones of the lower leg and filling in the groove. The human form is packed with muscle tissue. The muscle layer fills every shape and generates the shape and its neighboring balloon bag. Tissues of bone, the periosteum itself, the around the, the bone material is very thin.
I can slip my scalpel underneath it, uh, but it, despite its in its integrity, it's intimate relationship to the surface of the bone and through the surface of the bone clear on, into the uh, inner spaces and workings of the bony structure make it nearly impossible to remove it in sheets it shreds and yet underneath it, the surface of the bone is so beautiful. Here we see the form slowly skeletonized and the periosteum back lit or the Interossei CEUs membrane glowing as do the bones in the living. The following images demonstrate the muscle layer separated away from the body and re presented as creatures in their own integrity. This kind of presentation enables us to compare tissues of from one area of the body to another and to get a sense of different sizes and proportions of the various tissues from one area to another or within a given place, which might not otherwise it might not otherwise be possible to observe them. Uh, in this way.
And this gives us further insights into the qualities of the tissues and helps us discover more about them. Also by plumbing the depths of the tissues themselves. It's an opportunity for me to explore internal relationships and then integrate them. Now we find ourselves having skeletonize the form bumping up against yet another layer, the Oregon liar. It was quite a decision which to present first.
If we went through the abdominal structures, we run into the organ layer before meeting the bone. But everywhere else on the body, you have to go through bone to get to the organ layer. Your organs are like creatures in a cave. We have to sort of hold hands together as we march into a dark wilderness in order to discover what might lie within there. It's a whole nother world that will save the exploration of for the next volume of the series. Also, muscles like the so as, and diaphragm, in my opinion, are virtually impossible to understand or appreciate properly out of the context of the viscera.
So I've left their presentation aside until an exploration of the viscera has been undertaken over the course of the very intense month that I spent working with this form, I found myself on more than one occasion, quite literally weeping with joy in the tremendous gratitude I felt for the gift I had received in this gentleman's form. And now still my appreciation is deep and I'm grateful that I can share it with you as well. My pursuit of anatomy as an integral discipline inevitably draws my attention to questions of meaning, purpose, intent, and relationships beyond the apparently physical realms of human form. The Sun is really the master gland of our bodies, the Moon Poles at the tides on delighting along our spinal cords as well as every other fluid body on our planet. The waves of our hearts extend well beyond our immediate physical form, interacting and patterning, our surrounding environment in direct accord with our own conscious or unconscious dispositions and generating geopolitics zones of fear.
Hi, sincerely, hope you've found this learning experience to be both firmly grounded and upwardly spiraling, and I look forward to further explorations with you,