- Learn the about efficient running form and what can be done to improve in these areas
- Learn the different reasons why people get injured while running and what can be done for prevention
- Learn how shoes and foot placement plays a role in running form
Hello guys, and thank you for coming to this running workshop. I really appreciate you be here. Uh, my name is Harmon, a physical therapist from, from Spain. And I'm so happy to be invited by Polaris anytime to share, uh, the running, uh, fundamentals and some new ideas about how we can improve, how can we improve our running technique in order to run in a more efficient way, in a safer way. Sounds good for you. Okay. Very good. So let's start. So when this started actually the, the human beings, the first hominids, they, uh, stood on, uh, to fit like 4 million years, 4 million years ago.
So that's pretty much time. So we were the only or the first animal that we decided to stood up and work into feet. And that created a lot of changes. Uh, it was, uh, at that time probably are how many didn't know the consequences of that decision, but they were huge and you can see around what we made with the world and with our society thanks to that chain. So that change was dramatically important to our evolution. Um, and it created a lot of benefits to our, to as business. So we are very used to, to work. And at the same time, we know that the kind of human we are is, they're almost [inaudible].
It's also very, um, used to, to run. So we are made to run. So we have some particular features that made us very good runners and there are some evidences that status and says that that's probably one of the key parts of why we survive. And other hominids they, they couldn't do it because even though we weren't the most, uh, faster and the most stronger, uh, hominids, uh, we were the ones who run better. And that could be one of the reasons that why we are here. So that's, that's pretty cool. That's, that's really interesting. And so we're made to run. So that's one of the of the key things we want to do today. So, um, this is the, the first worker is called, uh, r d, uh, at the pita grandmothers. Um, one of the key features that they needed to do is to art their spine.
So there are all other apes that they can work on two feet, but they are not using it as their primary way of locomotion. We do. So in order to do that, we needed to create a lumbar lordosis that, um, made that the, the gravity passes through the center of our lumbers and then spread the energy towards the, towards the feet. So without that core good Lordosis, we cannot really be very good bipeds and we cannot run and we cannot work. So that would be very interesting in order to understand how we can help a runner to be a stable and two to performing in the better way. So here you have one of the differences that, um, demonstrated that we change, uh, our anatomy and we both in a way that, eh, we, we improved the, the, our features to be runners. So you can see a very long list here, um, of many different changes that happen. So in the, in the first image you have the, um, the human anatomy.
And in the second picture you have, uh, uh, almost, I don't really know if the acrimonious one or Neanderthal, but it's an all ape, uh, first, first. Hominid. So one of the things that you can see here is that many of the features that you, that you see, uh, improved our running, uh, capabilities. So for instance, we have a new kind of ligaments that is solely needed if you are running a running speed. So if you work, you really need all that connected connective tissue in your, in your neck. Uh, one of the things that also happen is that now we have separated motion between the head and the, uh, at the bags and the shoulder girdle. Our thorax is narrow, our legs are longer, our central gravity is closer together to the, to the central axis. So our hips are really close to the central axis. Um, we have a very interesting system in the sole of our foot that is like a catapult is like a trampoline and yeah, sorry.
Uh, that it creates a, a lot of a energy storage that we can reduce when, when we run. And that happens only with humans. So, so there's many, many things that happen in our anatomy that made us very good, very good runners. One of the main things is the last to the longer Achilles tendon and the planter art. So that very important key features for foreigners. So my message here is we are very good runners, but we still getting injured. So that has to be something there that, uh, we need to understand in order to, if we are designed to run, how could it be that we are getting injured every time we run? So there are evidence that says between the 20% or the 80% of, uh, runners get injured every day because of running.
So that's as crazy as, um, a bird that is getting injured because it's flying. You know, a bird is made to fly and it doesn't go to the nest to say, you know, Mary, I had an injury and [inaudible] tendinitis. Why? What did you do? I was flying. What your bird birdie supposed to fly? Uh, so yeah, it happens to us all the time. We go running, we are myths around that. We get injured all the time. So, so let's, let's try to understand why. Okay. So one of the things that really important about the, the humans is that our, uh, when we run at the, it is called the endurance running speed. Um, we are very efficient so we can run for long distances without expanding spending a lot of energy. So if we compare with quality pets, animals, uh, the same weight or, or similar way to us, or actually every animal quality pet animal, when they go into a more speed like trot or Gallup, their energy expenditure rises dramatically. So it's like a u shape. Um, so one of the things that, that human beings do very well is to be very efficient that transport.
So when we work, and actually when we run as well, we are very efficient. So we, we are, we are not the fastest animal for sure. Any skirt. Squirrel is much faster than Usain bolt. Uh, we are not a stronger animal if a chimpanzee can beat us and destroy us in seconds. So we are not the most powerful, the most faster. But there are, we are very good at sweating. So we are the best animal to sweat, sweat, [inaudible]. So all our skin is, uh, it is, there's no hair or barely hair.
So it allows us to refrigerate ourselves. So we are very good at our keeping our temperature low. So that's why we can run faster distances. Um, and that's one of the reasons why we here, because we, when we were hunting, we were slowly running after the animals and at a certain point the animal needed to stop, uh, to refrigerate or drink water or something like this. And we still, uh, able to work. So at the end we just kill them and take it back home.
Um, so that was our feature actually, that we were very good at persistence, running on persistence, hunting and, and there's some evidence about it. So, uh, so this, this graphic, it's really interesting because we, you can see the difference between the quality pets and, and the vipers, the human. So most of the quadruplets or all the acquired pets. Then when they raise the energy, when they raise the speed story, they raise the energy that they use. So it's this u shape a form that you can, that you can see here. So the faster they run, uh, the more energy they spent. A very interesting that the humans, we, when we work, we have a point where we don't really have a, we don't really spend a lot of energy. We spend very little energy. We can work for ages, but then if we raise our speed, we naturally change our form, our gate.
So instead of walking your own system knows and decided that, you know, it's better to run. Now it's much more efficient. That's why we naturally start running. So when we go to the persistence run in or through the endurance running, uh, this is the, the, the shape. This is the energy. So even though we are increasing our speed, the energies barely basically flat. So that's, that's pretty cool because we really can run for, for longer distances. Um, there's also difference between walking and running. Uh, there's two different, uh, ways of locomotion and there will be another one that is sprinting.
So this is our three speeds. So walk, run and sprint. And the three of them, they have very different, uh, features too. If you look at the w, uh, working when we walk, uh, one of the main differences that we have both fits at the same times 10% of the cycle. So it's, we have both feet on the floor at a certain point. When we run with Jones, we are just one foot all the time. One of the things that happens is the way we use and we recycle our energy when we work, when we work, um, at a mist mid stance that is this point we are in the taller positions is this is the highest position. So we are, we here have a lot of gravitational energy and then we use it to move forward. When we run, we do something different. We use gravity to store energy in our tendons, in our connective tissue. So the mid stance is our lower point at running.
It's just the opposite. So then we recycled if this energy to convert it to forward energy to kinetic energy. So, so it's, it's a bit different and it's two different forms. One of the problems and, and what evidence is saying lately is that some of the injuries about running is because we run at a walking speed. So we run in a very, uh, a very slow speed. So that can create that we are using a different shape, a different form for the speed we use in our, that can create, uh, some, some sort of problems in terms of, of injury. So we, we were talking about that we store energy, right? So, so there are different, uh, features that we have in our anatomy that can help us to understand this.
So one of this is the [inaudible] amplifier. If you see this cut of the thigh, uh, you see that every muscle is surrounded by this wide thing. And what do you think is this y thing around the muscle, Huh? Yeah, it's, it's all between the different muscles. The tissue is Fascia. Okay. So every muscle is surrounded by fashion. And we have a muscle in the side that is a TFL [inaudible] actually that's, that's the, the role. So what it does, it's, so this is the TFL, it creates energy around the, it's a compressive energy around the side.
So what the muscles do, they drastically press against that, the tension of the, of the tension facilita. So that creates a lot of stability things to this pressure system and connected tissue, the system that help us to increase our efficiency by 30%. So we are very good on a key part, stability without using a lot of muscles. So that's, that's why it's very important that TFL is doing their job and is working in a more anticipatory way and not to be used as a he flexor because sometimes our posture creates that the TFL works on a hip flexor and it doesn't create the same energy around the Fi. So it doesn't create the same stability that we were supposed to have. All right, so this is what the muscles do. The muscles press against that, uh, compression they inflate and that inflammation creates, creates energy.
And creates stability. One of the things that can help us to understand is this a catapult effect. So if you, if you see, uh, the, the Kangaroos are all are also by bets. So they live in, in, to, in, into fit, but they have a long jail to counterbalance. So their, their system is quite different, uh, of, of our system. So what happens is that what they see is that as at the same way as humans, as faster as the kangaroo jumps, it doesn't get more energy to jump. So that means that all these long tendons that the kangaroo has stores a lot of energy on rebounds, a lot of energy in a freeway. It's not, ATB is not energy exchange between the muscle.
So is the connected tissue that is doing basically all the work here. Alright. The third concept that we should understand is that the last dig record properties of the, of the Fascia or the connective tissue, and this is pretty cool because we all learn at school that, uh, there's our concentric action and a, an eccentric action and a different muscle and the fibers of acting and Myosin, they shorten or they lengthen depending their action. But that that's true in, in, uh, open chain activities. But in it's in close change activities changes a little bit.
So in an open chain we can see that kind of behavior. So this is the muscle fiber and this is the tendon. So when you do the motion of the ankle in this, in this case, what you see is that the muscle changes the length of the fibers when they do our control, our contraction or when the, uh, Accenture contraction and the tendon that is, this green part is basically the same size. So it doesn't change it that much as you can see. So all the changes is created and it's happening in the, in the muscle fiber. So that means energy.
So we need energy to move on to separate and shorten this muscle fibers. If you look at this part of the picture in the, in the closed kinetic chain. So when we use our, uh, body against, uh, fit, fixed, uh, uh, surface or surface, uh, we see something different. The mass of fiber, as you can see here, barely changes. So it stays basically at the same shape. But if you look at the tandem, the connective tissue, it changes a lot. So it is just the opposite of what we see in an open chain.
So here the muscles are spending less energy and the energy that they are spending is in holding the joint. So it's more core contraction than our concentric and eccentric action. And is the tendon who is taking all this energy and releasing all this energy and every step we we take. So that's why it's very important in the, in our training and our conditioning to understand this and instead of focusing that much in the muscles, trying to get this kind of, uh, capabilities into our connective tissue. All right. So we need to talk about very important muscle for runner, the Gluteus medius. Um, the Gluteus Medius is their primary stabilizer in the frontal plane. So every time we, um, go into this position, like a single leg, the gravity wants to drop us this way.
So we have a liver and then we have a, um, momentum, a rotational momentum. So is the gluteus media that is here that is trying to conserve balance and whole this lever that is our pelvis. So gluteus medius has to be, uh, in a very good shape and it has to be, uh, very connected to our nervous system. I mean, it has to be anticipatory, so we need to teach them the gluteus medius to fire at the moment in it's your fire. And that happens in our more autonomic way. So we don't need to think in the gluteus measures, but we need to create the environment for our gluteus medius to work the way it should is you work all right. When running, especially religious Maximo's is also key. It's really, and it's a muscle that controls the three planes of space. So it can extend abduct and externally rotate the hip. But actually what it does is controls the opposite, control, the flection controlling channel rotation and control the adduction. So it's, most of the Times it works in on close chain so it's more like stabilizer, like a global stabilizer than a mobilizer in, in, in this case. So, so it's very important that uh, or Gluteus Medius, it's in a very good shape.
Again, if we don't have very good, very good gluteus Medius, we start to compensate with TFL and qualitatives and that counterbalance our system. And then that creates and stability in our lumbar spine and then reduces the ability of our jolly completely by around the thigh. So everything started changing and, and if you see the typical runner is very common to see that very huge thighs, like very huge quads, um, surprisingly very little glutes. So like nothing, it's nothing there. So we will need to balance that. That two parts of, of the hip and especially gluteus are a key parts in, in, in, in this part. All right, so after all this, now we know that we are humans. We here because we run. So we are very good at running, but this is the call a number that we are getting injured every year.
So my question is why, why, if we are made to run, why running is so damaging for us. So there's several reasons. One of the reasons that it becomes, it became very popular in the, in the last five, six, seven years is that the footwork is footwear is part of the, of the problem. So there is some evidence as you can see here that that says that yeah, footwork is not reducing them, but that we are applying into our skeleton. But even just the opposite, it creates or increases the stress on the skeleton and the food and the on the pursuer chain. Um, the thing is that is not about the shoe. So the shoe can be, um, something that creates more stress, but there is not a clear evidence that shoes on or shoes of it.
It makes a big difference in terms of injury. So that's not, uh, that's not the, the big reason. So we cannot stay that, take your shoes off and run barefoot. And everything is going to be perfect and no injury and no benders. That's, that's not true, actually. It's not true. So as you can see here, uh, there's an example of a very good barefoot runner and a very bad barefoot runners. So you can take off your shoes and you can still be a very bad runner. So, so your chances of getting injured is going to be even higher than if, if you take your, your shoes on. So first idea is not about the shoe. So, so it's not, it's not the key point about getting injured and when you run, but say that, uh, there's some evidence that says that it is the running form and it's the running technique that has impact in the injuries.
And sometimes what we have in our food can influences, can influence in the way we run. So it's, there's a relationship, but yes or no. So we, we need to understand and we'll see. We'll see now. Okay. So as I told you now, this is one of the, of why researchers believe it is, uh, the key part of why we get injured. So if, if you see like recreational runners and the on the right part of the, of the screen here, you'll see a very different shape of the professional runners. So this is probably three of the best runners in history and it looks pretty different, right? Uh, you know, the way they learn, the way their food lands, uh, the place where the food lands under the pelvis, all the elastic recall they can absorb in their hamstrings and the little chime that they spend on their ground. And on the opposite, you see all these people that it's all their recreation recreational runners that they are, have this sticky, heavy, uh, cadence, um, way of way of running. So this is important. So running form matters. So most of the time we need to look at how is the running technique going instead of what they have in their, in their foot. All right, so what, what, what it means to, to be efficient when you run, what is the key part of this?
So when, when you run and you overstride, so that means that your heel is way forward to your hips. So you're having a highest breaking face so that you mean, that means that when you hit the ground, the energy of the ground is breaking you. So the ground reaction forces against you. So it's not helping you to move forward. It's breaking you. So one is one, this is one of the key parts. So we have more ground reaction force. The more the liver we create, the more ground reaction force that we get from that, from that, from the ground. So there's more contact time.
So there's seminars and now I, I will, I will show you that the seven is that the more time you are on the ground, the more body weights you are absorbing and you are supporting in, in your system. You are, you need to, uh, stablize the demand of disabilities is higher. So you need to use the arm to concept, balance, all this energy that is getting into your system. When, when you heel strike, um, it doesn't matter if you have one shoes or another, when you heel strike and when you heel strike forward quite forward to the center of gravity, your heel doesn't have anticipatory. Uh, abilities. So you don't really know how to do or what to do with, with that, uh, instability that is getting into your system. When you go into the midfoot or the forefoot, you can because you have all these tiny muscles and the faster that is communicating with the a it rollick amplifier in the, in the hips. So you are, um, you are prepared to, to that amount of stability, but when you heel strike you down. So that's why you need to use more of your arms to console balance, uh, yourself. So the same reason there's more spine torsion, so there's more rotation to control.
There is more vertical movement and the vertical loading rate, uh, it's, it's one of the variables that is getting biggest results in terms of injury. So, so there's some others that they look at like the ground reaction force or the ground contact time or that they are not that clear, but it's very clear in every research they do is that the vertical forces is one of the main things that are related to injuries. So that's something that we need to take care of. Um, we reduce our elastic recall for propulsion. So it's, it is known that 38% of the energy that we applied to our plantar Fascia, it's back, we can take it back into your system is recycle into our system. So if we heel strike, we cannot slow that plant or fast in the same way because you are basically hitting the floor with a bone. So we can get, uh, advantage of, of that. So it reduces their stability and alignment and also reduces the cadence.
It's so difficult to have a very fast or very good cadence when you need to do the whole food rolling on, on the, on the ground. Okay. So that's, that would be the, the main characteristic of a unefficient inefficient running form. And there's, there's some evidence here that, that you can see. So this is the average vertical loading rate that I was talking to you about. Um, so they all start at 3.2 times higher.
So injured runners, they have a higher average vertical loading rate. So that, that's, that's something that we really need to take care of. Um, if we go to tendon injuries, so connected tissue injuries that are very common in runners like a Plantar fascitis or shins plains or um, uh, Achilles tendinitis, all these kinds of, uh, injuries, uh, what they say is that high braking force. So when you really, uh, heel strike and have a very, uh, big braking force into your system, it's clear evidence of Achilles injury risk. So that, that's something that, and this is a systematic review, so it's, it's a, a group of, uh, trials that they were research. Um, and it's, it's pretty good evidence. So one of the recommendations that they do is, uh, very interested in it's avoidance of surfaces. It is believed that if you have a very good cushion shoes and you go into the grass or into the, uh, park in a softer face, it's gonna be safer for, for your anatomy. And the, actually, it's not, uh, first is probably a more unstable for face. And second, you don't get advantage of the properties of your last dictation. If you have no, I don't know if you run in, into the beach, into the sand of the beach. And how it feels. Yeah, absolutely.
It's quite different because every time you need energy to propose yourself, you're losing part of the energy because the sun is moving. So it becomes a way more muscular activity instead of a connective tissue activity. So running is a very myofascial activity. It needs muscle, but it also needs a very good shape in, in the functional system. For instance, cycling is a completely muscular activities, completely different. Uh, if you look us a cyclist, specially like this, sprinters, the one who are very, very fast, the Fi's are like this big huge, they have, uh, the ability to generate a lot of power. Uh, a runner. If you go out like a marathon runner, it's like you can see and touch every fiber and to the muscles.
So it's not very big. Muscle there is very strong, but it's more thin. It's, it's, it's more connective so you can see every fiber, every, um, so it's much, much more about the connected tissue than, than the muscle is what I, what I meant. Another thing that the authors of this study, uh, recommended is that strength training. It could be Gladys, it could be more controls, stability, functional training, strength training. So something that creates changes in your structure and gauge retraining. It could be beneficial to avoid, uh, this kind of injury. So, so this is the direction where we are, we want to be or we want to do. So another reset that is, it's also interesting.
So is there a stride frequency and length on running mechanics? And it's also a systematic review. So it's, it's a group of trials. So what the, what it says here is that increased tread rate. Suppose our decrease center of mass verticals is caution. So that means that the faster is your cadence, the less up and down energy to create. So, so that's a very important data for us. We need to use that because it, we have seen before that this vertical loading rate is, it has a high relationship, three point times o of, uh, of being injured. So, so that's, that's important.
So it also decreases the ground reaction force. They show continuation energy of sort the hips, knees, and ankle joint. So that means that one of the key things that we want to focus when we run this cadence and, and you'll see that it's, it's probably the, the most, uh, interesting intervention to do a work on cadence. And there's another research about Kayden's and uh, it's, it's also interesting that it is told that if it is true that when you run and you are used to, to heel strike your probably your, your heel, your [inaudible], that fat around nickel canyons and all this tissue, it is stronger because you have, you've been creating a load and adaptation in that tissue. So when you switch to a metatarsal, your methods are so are probably not that strong.
So it's probably that you get injured if you run too much too soon. The thing is that we need to create the proper adaptation into the metatarsal loads. Uh, so in a, in a easy way of saying it is like you get, you injured, you injure your metatarsal a little bit. So you create a reparation, inflammation or this process that the, the, the body is healing the bone and you injury a little bit and you injure a little bit and you angel a little bit until your system is creating more uh, bone mass. Um, uh, bone mass. You say that. Yeah. Uh, so your bone is getting stronger, stronger. You [inaudible] getting stronger jaw or artists of the food and the Fascia and the muscles are getting stronger little by little.
So one of the things that has to happen is to be very gradual. So people, they want to run a 10 k with their regular training shoes and then they want to shoot into a barefoot running or they want to increase, uh, their cadence and reduce the cushion and they want to do it one day to another. That's why that's where you get injured because you, Jude haven't adapt your tissues where you are applying the forces now. So saying that increasing the Carolyn's did not elevate their metatarsal slow even though it probably changed the way you, you put the food on the ground, you contact your contact point of the ground. Is Not a, as much on the hill and it's more flat. It doesn't increase their metatarsal loads. Um, and this is very interesting.
It's just that if you increase your cans just a 5%, so you reduce the 565 body weights into your shield, um, 140 or 170 body weights in Germans and ourselves. So that means that you are reducing and you know, Jim, what, how's your, what is your weight now? Like 200. Okay. Don't know pounds. So I'm not kilos, but 200, whatever it is, 200, three times a free times, uh, uh, 565 times. So it's, that's every mile. So you might imagine all that load into your system. If you can increase your callings 5% you are taking all these pounds that I know. How much are they? Every mile that's in your hill and this is in your metatarsal.
So again, increasing the cadence is going to be something, uh, that we need to do. What happens to runners that they are used to run in a very slow and sticky cadence? Is that it gets harder to get into that rhythm. So, so maybe you don't run the 45 minutes that you are used to run and now after 20 minutes you are super tired. And that's why we need to create the changes in our system through our exercises and our progressions in order to be able to run at that cadence. Because if you cannot run at that cadence, you cannot run. It's just you're cheating yourself.
You are throwing yourself against the ground hoping from the ground to rebound you in some some way. Um, but actually you're not ready enough. You're not fit enough to, to run in, in, in the proper, in the proper form yet. Okay. If we come back to the, to the huge, um, that's also very interesting because you're gonna find that many of your runners, people who wants to train with you, uh, and they are runners, they will ask you at certain point, what kind of shoes do we need to use? So this is what evidence says it. It's like, uh, 80% of runners, if you, if they go barefoot, 80% of them, they went into more plantar flex or flat foods, uh, heel, a strike landing strike. If you take a shoes on, it changes to the 80% of the runners. They will heel strike. So it's on, and that's, this is connected of what we were talking before.
It's not about the shoe, but it changes. It changes the way we run. So if you put like a hi Christian, a shoe, it's 80% of chances that you go into hill strike. And if you go into a hill strike, you have, you have all these high braking forces, more ground contact time or vertical force. All other things that we were, were talking before. If you take your shoes off, 80% of us, we will change or we will switch to a different form that is more plantarflex.
So that's, that's something interesting. And this is the difference between one shape or another. So if you see this is the, the bodyworks are almost the same. It's about 2.5 body weights in the mid stance. That, is that the point where you are taking the biggest load. The difference here is this transcend here is this little point here.
So here energy goes so fast into our system that we cannot anticipate it's, there's no time. It's nothing. It's milliseconds. So we, our nervous system is not ready to stabilize it. This, we cannot do it in the, in the barefoot you see that the forces raises in a more gradual way and you don't have this little chains. So it is believe that here is useful in order to reduce the load in order to increase the cadence in order to get benefit of all of our connected tissue. And probably not here said that there is a lot of a heel strikers that they are amazing. So the last five or four world records of marathon men, the hill strike, um, and they are the fastest men in the world. So, so this is relative, it's all relative just to, to understand that the biomechanics and the kinematics changes a little bit.
All right. So this is what, in a summary, in a summary, what we want to see in our runner, in our runners. So we want to have, uh, the, um, the landing as close to the center of gravity as possible. So we really want to have the closest distance between the, our central access and the on the strike. Uh, we want to have the TVA vertical in order to transfer the forces quickly so the knee has to be slightly flexed when we are, when we are, uh, taking that weight into our [inaudible] structure and method landing is okay, okay. Midfoot landing, it's okay. Midfoot, it's not made for this. It's um, I dunno, it's a, it's something to understand or do you go, uh, for food or heel strike or flat, but it's not mere food. You don't learn in your cuneiforms. It's, it's not a place where you learn, but it's, it's a way to understand that basically the whole food is contacting the ground most, but mostly at the same time. So they are, they are heel strikers. That, is that like a sensitive heel, sensible, sensitive hill that they hill strike. But very quickly go into a, into their whole foods. That's okay. That's most of this, uh, runners that I told you before this marathon, there were records, they had the hill strike, but they very quickly go into the whole foot so they can spread the energy very, very quickly. So this is what we want to do in terms to reduce our, our impact. So that would be that the result of our efficient running form and there's a lot of evidence here, so we want to learn on or close as possible into our center of gravity.
Main foot. All right. Flat foot or, well, you understand me now, uh, we need to reduce and we have a shorter full contact time. So the less time we are in the, into the ground, the less body weights. Uh, we are putting into hours onto our system. There's less vertical movement. That's very, very important. Uh, it eliminates useless muscular work because we are more stable, we are more compact, so we don't really need to use arms to counterbalance. And the cadence is between 175 and 180 steps per minute. So the, the, the magic point is 180, but it doesn't mean that you really need to run.
So it depends on your speed and depends of your shape. But that, that would be a nice goal, a nice objective to follow everything over 170. It's okay for most of recreational runners that they run out normal speed, like over five minutes kilometer. I know in miles, five minutes, uh, per kilometer something, something around that injuries. So we have, we were talking about shoes. We know that shoes are key. So there's no evidence that says that shoes on shoes or the type of shoes changes the injury rate. There's not, um, the second part, but she was influenced the way we run it can create a facilitation of a proper run into nick or not. So. So something to consider.
Second thing would be their running technique. Now here there's strong evidence that if you improve your running technique, it's a relationship with reduce injuries. The third thing is that that adaptation of the tissues, and here's his, this graph. So the red line is the, is the maximum capacity of adaptation of our tissue is the more, uh, forces that the tissue can get without getting injured. The, the blue that with the blue, that general one, sorry, the yellow line is the minimum stress that you need to apply into a tissue in order to create adaptation. So this is the rest in zone.
So this is where sensory people leave. So they don't create enough adaptation. They don't create the minimum adaptation to change the tissues. So what happens to the tissue that they create a negative adaptation? The Bonnie mass reduces, they'll stitch, it reduces the strength, reduces Insta, eh, the muscle fibers instead of beam muscle fibers becomes fat.
So it creates changes in a, in a negative way. So we want to take our runners into this to point between the maximum stress and the minimum stress. So this, this is the kind of feeling that you have when you go for a run and you wake up in the morning and the first four or five steps are like achy and a bit painful. But after that, it's okay. That's a good feeling. So that, that means that you have created a tiny injury in your tissues that you are, you can recover without a major injury and you're creating changes if you are doing our workout and the next day you cannot do, barely cannot walk. You cannot move. You are so exhausted and it's, everything is painful. You are here. So you have, you have, uh, created a lot of, uh, force into your tissue. So the tissue tolerance, it's, Eh, it's exceeded. It's succeeded surgery so you get injured. So that's why it has to be very progressive and very gradual. So, so that's going to be a key part of, of training.
So you know that most of, uh, running injuries are well-managed through loading, uh, management. If you control and manage the load, it's highly likely that you are successful treating or, or creating, uh, a positive change into an injured runner. So now we want this to improve our run in technique. Um, this is Michael Johnson. You as American should be proud of this guy, uh, in our opinion is probably one of the best example of, of running a, he's pretty amazing. He's very vertical. Uh, the cadence is unbelievable. Uh, if you see the difference of canons between him and the other guys, um, on how stable his snore rotation, he is very stable, very vertical, and on very, very nice cadence. So, so this is a very good assemble. We don't want to run that this bit of course. Well maybe yes, but, but it's, it's pretty amazing. And when you see, uh, uh, at its, at the side of another runner and you see the difference, it's like they're doing two different sports, right? Can you see the difference?
Right? Yeah. It's, it's quite fast and it's a very good coordination between the arms and the legs. Okay. So how do we learn or how do we relearn to, to move? So, so this is something that maybe you are familiar with. So first we don't know what we can do something. We don't know that we cannot run at 180 steps per minute. We don't know at the beginning we just go and run or we don't know.
We cannot keep our stability when we run or we can control our rotation. We just don't know. So first we need to make conscious of this so we jump to their second state. That is conscious and competence. That's why we use video analysis. So we filmed the runners, um, and we'd share this with the runner.
And when a runner is able to see and to understand what is going on with their running form, they can start to create changes. At least now they are aware, they are conscious about what they need to change, they can what they can do and what they cannot do. When they train and they repeat and we create changes and we create facilitation, we go to our conscious competence, uh, state. So that means that now we can do it. Now we can control our rotation. Now we can be stable. Now we can increase our cadence.
Now everything is happening properly. But I need to think about it. You were telling me before, I so hard to get the cadence. It's true because you really need to make this automatic and natural for you. And it takes time. Sometimes it takes months or maybe here, I don't know. So, but then you go to, you are in the state of conscious competence.
You can do it, but you need to think about it, especially in running a, you cannot be thinking when you run. It's when you run, you run. It's, it's um, it's like this. So, so we need to move to, to the next day. That is their subconscious competence. That means that you have created, um, enough stimulus and enough training and reputation and experience and you've been working with your brain to understand how you do it. So you've been learning how to run until it becomes natural. Automatic. And your sister know what to do and your system is in a, in a good shape to to do it.
So another thing that that did analysis helps and all this coaching process helps is that it creates a augmented feedback. So we have all our feedback. So our visual or auditory, tactile, proprioceptive, all the visual that our own system is, is given us. But again, we as coach can create, uh, more information and more feedback into that system to increase the results. And, and it's dramatically important that the information and the good information that the coach is providing you in order to create changes.
Because sometimes with this intrinsic feedback is not enough because you don't know what you don't know. Sometimes you don't, you don't see your side view when you are running.
So not too little, not too much. So you can see runners that they are using a lot of energy and stress and tension in order to run, so that that would be too much energy, uh, to, to do the, this activity. We need to coordinate our neuro motor system. So our, essentially your motor system. So there's three ways of doing it. So we have all three ways of the neuro motor system works, so we have a prepared more assistance. So that means that you can consciously modulator or stiffness and you can consciously prepare yourself to do something. So this is very common in, in the pill, this environment. So we learn, we create like a cortex activity in order to understand why we need to do, and I prepare to do it and then I do it.
And that's perfect for learning new patterns. So sometimes we need to take the, um, uh, movement into the Cortex, into the prefrontal part. And we need to plan and prepare all this in order to create a movement. That's cool. Perfectly cool. And we're going to use it. But then there's a predictive, uh, moral control that means that after all our years of model development, crawling, walking, or plane jumping, climbing or what we do and when kids are system creates this anticipatory ability. So that means that every time I need to do something that requires stability, our stability system, especially the muscles around the core, uh, are prepare in order to provide that. That's the ability.
So that would be the predictive and, but there's also our reactive, uh, more control. So this is that the feedback that means that the feedback loops, sorry. So it means that every, every time I do something, by the time that I'm sending the signal, the Moro signal into my, into the tissue, the tissues are given the signal back and they are providing sensitive information to say, okay, this was too fast or too strong or just spend a lot of energy on this is not very, uh, subtle. It has to be refined. So we are exchanging all that information. Uh, sometimes our reactiveness has to be very fast and in running has to be very fast. So every reactive change, every stability change has to happen on 180 steps per minute. So that's so fast. So we are on the ground 200 milliseconds, that's too fast. So we need to teach our, our system to be reactive.
So that's something that we are not very used to doing their bladders environment. So that's why we can create a little bit different approach to the exercise to get more transference into our running. And that that's one of the keys of, of the program. And, and the class we are gonna we're going to do as good teachers and very important, we need to follow this. The, I don't know if you heard about the Pareto principle. So that means basically that 20% of your efforts is going to create 80% of the changes. So so in run in is like this, if we focus in the main things in the main problems of, of that runner, just that 20% that is really bother bothering the system. We're going to create 80% of the changes. So sometimes we are focused on pronation should be nations that are really, that are very little details that they are not that important.
And we forget about, uh, the main thing. So, so we want to work on the 20%. That's why we are video analysis and our screening is kind of casual. So it's not very like scientific and sad. We just need to get information and the reference in order to see if we are able to create, to create changes in our, you know, runner. Okay. So to run, and this is a, um, something that leads actually that is a very good running code says that Ronnie Mantra is run. It's about posture, rhythm and relaxation.
So we should keep this, uh, smart as we can. So as Polaris teachers, uh, posture is our thing. So we know a lot of, a lot about posture. Um, bladder stitches can be and actually are very good running coaches because they understand posture, they understand qualities, diff movement, and they understand how to facilitate a change, how to facilitate movement in the, in the students. So, so that's a very good advantage or fabulous teacher in order to become or start working with, with runners, a rhythm that is something that we need to learn and we'll we're gonna do some exercise to, to create that rhythm. The rhythm is 180 as the magic number and relaxation and we are pretty good as politesse teacher also with relaxation. So we are used to uh, communicate with our system to fill our attention to half awareness of ourselves and in our students the same. So, so we just need to add basically the rhythm part into our program and to understand what is the proper running technique in order to be a, a great running coach. Okay. So, um, this is the last thing we're going to do. So what we need in order to start running in terms of functional and postural needs. So we need to be stable in the surgical plane.
So that's going to be probably the most important thing. You're going to see a lot of runners that every time they, they do our a strike and into the ground, they create a lot of motion in the spine or a lot of motion in some other parts. So we need sites of stability, especially in the, in the lumbar spine. So we need lateral stability. We need to be able to control 2.5 our body weight in our one foods and control this momentum. So lateral stability is also key.
In order to, to run, we need to control the irritation. Sometimes in Belarus we focus in creating rotation, rotation, rotation, rotation, lateral position, as much rotation as we can get. But the reality is that most of the times the challenge of rotation is control it. Most of the people with low back pain, they have excessive rotation in the lumbars uncontrolled rotation. So we need to relearn and we need to understand how to control our rotation. Uh, thoracic extension. OK. If we are able to, uh, take our body weight straight into the ground with the les livers possible, the best. And sometimes we lack the enough rassic extension.
And that creates also changes in our structure. So thoracic extension is going to be key. If you have the image of Michael Johnson that that would be like very good thoracic extension running. All right. Uh, we need a good hips, hip conditioning and those are my kids actually. So, so, uh, we need to be able to squat and play on half hour, uh, spine upright. Um, there are research there that says that when you fall squad is more or less the same, uh, energy that you apply into your hips, into your food. It happens basically the same. So, so if you cannot deep squat, it's highly unlikely that you can run properly.
So deep squat and good hips with mobility and strength are, are really important. And last is a good fit, a condition, food with proprioception, with the strength with intrinsic, uh, mobility and stability with a very nice connective tissue. And the artists are doing what it needs to do. So, so free the food is going to be a important. So this is the, the end of the lecture part. I hope these ideas and concepts helps you to understand what is going to happen.
Now what is, uh, first we're going to do a video analysis of one of you. Uh, we are gonna check how, uh, how you run and trying to understand or follow the, the features that we saw on the, on the lecturer. So how is the uh, vertical loading rate, how is the cadence, how is the posture, how is the poster written? Relaxation relationship. So when we have that information, we're going to do some exercise and we are trying to create some changes. And then at the end we're gonna film again and we're gonna do our video analysis and we can compare the before and after. Alright, so that's, that's why it's coming next. Okay. Thank you very much.
Okay, so now we are here with a gym. We're going to do the video analysis.
So first I need to do is just to work a little bit to warm up. So let's start the treadmill.
So let's go to a faster, faster walking.
And then we're going to go to a 6.2 miles per hour and that would be the first, uh, speed that I want to do the video analysis. And then probably we'll film you again at 7.2 miles per hour. Right? So let's go to the next. If you feel you need to run, you can start running if you like. Yeah, it's like in between. Okay. Let's go to now that you feel that your honor. Okay. So let's go to the first spit 6.2. Okay.
You see if there's any, any change? Okay. You're ready? Yup. I go all the way. All right. So then, okay, you're good. Stop it. Cool. How are you? Good. Good. Um, now we're gonna do something. I wanna uh, see how you run without your shoes, okay. To take if there's any change or no. Okay. All right? Yeah. Okay. Have you ever ran without shoes? Not very far. Not very far. Okay. All right. Awesome. So perfect. So let's take this.
Okay. We are going to do last, uh, the last bit, the 7.2. Okay. On, because see, I can see more things in your running form at that speed. It makes more clear what happens. All right? So, okay.
So now we're going to do the exercise. Okay. In order to, to change a little bit the way you run in to see if we can improve it. All right. Awesome. Okay James. So this is a video of, of your running.
So we should get out of the ground between 200 millisecond and 230 something as much as that. Okay. So let's see what happens. This is the frames and you leave there probably, and it's a 1361, so it's 280 so it's quite a bit. So it should be, it should be faster. If you go, if we go to the other foot, this is our contact 71 and we go into there the same since 290 14. Okay. So, so Kayden's was, is, was going to be the main, probably the main intervention we're gonna do with you. Okay. Um, the other thing that it's, it's important and, and we need to improve. It's where is the landing happening? Okay. So the TBI is kind of vertical, uh, but it's a bit forward.
Uh, the pelvis stays behind and the torso needs to lean forward a little bit. Not too much, but it's enough. And then you see that the head has to, has to extend a little bit the neck, the head. So we going to work also on the thoracic extension and the hip extension. That would be also key. Uh, if we go to the other one, you'll see basically the same, same idea. The head is a bit forward. So we are gonna work on the thoracic extension and probably the hips remains a bit flexed. All right? As a, as a, as a general thing to improve that is not very important is the arm movement.
So your arms are using a very long lever so that that makes them very heavy and it's quite a bit of movement, especially in the, in the extension of the, of the shoulder. Uh, that's going to create tension in, in the area of their shoulder. So we will not work on that too. Okay. Okay, makes sense. Okay, let's do it. Okay, Jen.
So now after the video analysis, we're going to do the, the exercise. Okay. So remember, first thing we want to improve is cadence. The rhythm. Second thing is about posture, especially the thoracic spine extension. And the hip extension.
So we're gonna focus on on that and then it will coach a little bit about the arms and at the beginning is going to be a bit uh, conscious, but eventually you will get used to, to a, a different, uh, way of using your, your arms. All right. So what I'm going to do is you see in a metronome and a specific rhythm, there is 180 beats per minute. Um, and we, we going to jump on two feet at the same time. Okay. I will explain you during the, during the, the exercise. All right, so have a metronome here. Uh, I will set it up out,
So first the metatarsal and then the hill. Okay. And the idea is just bounce. I'll try to use your muscle because your muscles are too slow. So when you feel that you got it. So let's do it.
That's it. Oh, sorry.
All right. So my goal here is that you get your rhythm into the head. Okay.
I'm feel that the fit is real. The food is rebounding you. It's really getting tension and bouncing you back. There you go. You got it. How it going? Do you want to shake the legs? A little
So with the same leg, every time you see the click, you're going to get. Okay, let's do it Alita faster. Okay. There you go. Okay. Okay. Okay. So
Forward a little bit. A little bit. It's not, here is not. There is a straight up duck. Duck. Okay, let's, let's, let's hear duck tech, the other one. There you go. Okay, let me [inaudible].
So that's why I put my hands there. In order to you to get there. The feeling of, of doing into the hips. So what you really want to see is, is a really fast, like a trigger. Like boom. All right. All right. Let me see it.
Alright. Agenda NC is a bit backwards, but that's okay. That's okay for today. You're going to do it in a real, a rhythm. Okay. So we're gonna go alternating and when you hear the uh, acute, you let go of the, of the Mat.
Okay. The other leg. Heel down track. There you go. Yeah.
Same leg. Every four. I'd say this table [inaudible] relaxed. There you go. That's it. You got it. The other one.
Okay. Step back.
Okay? Okay. Let's see how it works. You need to rest a little. You're good. All right. So first, don't do it. Watch. Listen. A lot of attention
So it's, you need to change the leg that is going up. Okay. But it's going to be that tack tack that that, so it's all the time again, as before, uh, watch me focus attention. When you feel you got it, just start doing it. Here you go. [inaudible] oh, there you go. There you go. Is the hips, is the legs separate? That's it. I like it.
Keep going. Okay. Okay.
So let's keep working right now that you warm up. All right? Uh, let's take the towel over your head. It's totally over your head. Show this down. Show the blades. I want you to feel some sort of activation here in the thoracic spine and they had really high [inaudible] at the same time. Relaxed. All right?
But I really want you to feel that the jowl is connected to this part of the thoracic spine. Right? That you really support from that part. Okay. So same rhythm. Now focus on that. All right.
There you go.
Let's go. Yeah, we gone go and bear fruit. Alright, so
Take it. No, not far away. No. For one by words. There you go. You got this? Yup. Alright, so keep it there. There. I want you to feel this. You got it? Yup. Now the same feeling sacred far away, right? So let your body go a little bit backwards in the [inaudible].
Awesome. And now feel that the safe room is moving forward. That's it. Look at the sound now changes very quickly. Right now you feel that you are, instead of crashing against the floor, you are using it to propose yourself forward. That's the difference. Okay. Can keep that feeling in the thoracic. There you go. [inaudible] awesome. Okay. Yup.
All right. Okay, good. Yeah, we're almost there. Okay. Are going to work on the thoracic spine extension. Okay. A couple more things. I'm worried. So let's come back to the treadmill, which was brilliant too. There much. Sorry. So let's go back to their marks. Uh, I'm going to use a couple of boxes for you like this. Alright. So this is what the interest is. What we are going to do is, uh, I want you to kneel here and I want you to put the elbows over the, uh, boxes.
And there you go. Um, you need to take the knees backwards. That's just, just not, maybe not that much. Okay. Awesome. So internalize your fingers like this and put it on the neck. So the, the hands are preventing that you extend the, the neck, right? So you keep it, keep it there in order to avoid the neck extension. Now. All right. Okay. So let's draw the elbows together just a tiny bit.
Awesome. And the feet are perfect. So try to take that shows down. So what I want you to feel is that the sit bones and the Seagram is going backwards to the, uh, to the other wall. To the wall behind you and you keep the elbows there. All right, so the hip flection is creating the thoracic extension through the position of the arms. Do you feel that something here is happening? Okay, so you try to get into that extension. So he flection, lengthen the sacrum, lengthen the spine.
All right? And now go forward in a little bit of flection. Keep the sacrum forward. And now try to extend the hips. So I mean that's it. So sit bones down, hips forward. That's it. You can use the glutes if you need it. There you go. And try to feel some sort of extension in the front of the hip. Can you feel it?
Yep. Awesome. So let's do it again. So change the foot back. Keep it there. There you go. And you want to focus on this part.
So extend the spine. So let the sacrament, they see Bango back and up. Awesome. And then again, just a couple of times. Alright, so now let's try to check their ribs back. The sacrum down the sit bones forward. Open the front of the hip and last time extension.
So the extension is created by the flection of the hips. Awesome. Stand here. Extend here. There you go. You feel that right? Right. Perfect. Okay, so rest. Oh, it was good. You have a feeling they're on the other extension. Yeah. Awesome. So we're going to take this out.
So let's say on the, on the mat. Okay Jim. So if you remember the feeling that you had when you were opening the hips, I want you to keep it now. All right, so, but the uh, feed down, there you go. And now try to extend just a tiny bit, not the, not the spine, just their hips. So let me, there you go. This is okay. Alright. And now, lower the sacrum and open here. You can feel some sort of tension here. Awesome. That's all I need. And the upper part is very natural. So I show you here.
I want you to keep this open and without losing the, uh, position of the spine, I want you to lean back and come back just a tiny bit. So lean back and come back. Okay. Do it again. Alright. So I want you to separate from my lower hand without pushing my upper hand. So I really want you to and lean together. There you go. That's it. So I didn't want you to break the movement from here, but this is moving everything. The Bovis. Yeah. All right.
There you go. Keep breathing. Perfect. Okay. So you feel some sort of tension here. So try to bounce in that tension. So it's like a catapult. So you create tension, tension, tension, and again, back, back, back, back, back, and again back again as one. Remember as above is perfect.
Okay. From here, from there. There you go. You got this? Yes. Okay. How are you? Very tired. Okay. Okay. So did you feel like the extension, but it's not a passive extension is like a very active extension where you really need to use the glutes to control, um, the whole muscle around the hips. So that's the kind of feeling that we w we're trying to transfer there. Okay. So now I want you to take one of the feet forward. All right?
So now we're working together, both the hip extension and the thoracic. All right, so this is getting difficult. Um, can you take this food a little bit closer and forward? A tiny bit forward? That's it. You feel stable there? Okay. So check the, that will have showed us down. So what I want you to do now is take this like this and I want you to take the sacrum forward and that chest up and come back. Are you keeping the heel down? No.
It's important to keep it right if you need to move it forward. So take it so sacred, sacred, sacred, sacred. And I don't want you to sink, so I don't really want you to lose height. So that's what I want. That's what I want. So it has to be very active here.
There you go. Got It. Just a tiny bit up, up, up, up, up. I'm back up. Uh, up. There you go. Okay. Take it one more time. That's it. You got it. Let's change the lick. It looks like nothing, but it's kind of tough. Right? Perfect. Okay, so shoulders down here. Oops. It was my fault.
So take it there. So hold it up. That's it. And come back. So don't lose any height or try, that's what I want. You got it. Alright, one more time. Breathe. Keep breathing. That's okay.
Breathe, breathe, breathe. Breathe. Libby higher here. There you go. One more time. There you go. Okay. Starbuck. How are you? Good. You feel the thoracic and the hip extension as well. You feel this idea here? Yeah. Okay.
So let me check your posture. How are you? Feel more lifted. [inaudible] ride. More awareness of your thoracic? Yes. Okay. More openness through here. Okay, so that was my bed. So let's see if with this exercise we can improve the running. So we, at the beginning I'm going to give you just the feedback of the metronome, just to get the rhythm and I'm
But then I will let you run us with information that you get from, from this class. All right, perfect. So let's go for it. All right, so
Now we're going to do the comparison. Okay. Have a two videos too, to see the difference because you probably feel the difference. But when you see the difference on the screen is it's completely, completely different. So that's good. All right. Good.
Perfect. Love it.
So it's almost a perfect 180, uh, angle degree. So that means that the energy of that gravity goes all the way into the ground without, uh, staying in your, in your system. If you see in this, in this part, um, same idea. This is where you have the tips and on the landing point and the head, and it's quite different. It's like 20 degrees of difference. So there's leavers here that, that you needed to control. Then now you are your [inaudible], you're more stable. So another thing that is very interesting, it's look at the heel and the knee. It's quite forward, Dan, in this frame. So that means that you are getting faster.
So when you are in the mid stance here, this swing face or this leg is almost finished. So here it was, it was behind. Uh, another thing that is interesting is the arms. You see it, like the arms has the shorter lever. So they, they are less, uh, heavier than now here that they were more uncontrolled. So if you go in and we compare this in, in movement, you can see the difference. How upright are you in this second part, how the cadence has improved and you look lighter runner, that really moves forward here. You see all the energy that you need to expand in your arms. You need to control the head on all this stuff. So it was a, it was a pretty amazing change.
So congratulations. Thank you. Uh, because you, you get all their feedback very quickly. So now the only thing we to improve actually is that, that you feel more natural little by little when, when you run and that it's just a matter of time and practice. Um, and a little bit of repeating the exercise and it will be, it will be. Okay. So thank you. Thank you for this. Amazing, thank you. My wife had the opportunity to attend one of ones workshops and when she came back, her running gait had changed and she was pretty amazed at the improvement and her running and in her gait. And I just knew I wanted to have the opportunity to see what one could offer me.
I'm a middling runner at best. I've been running my whole life, but I'm not a professional runner and I'm not really a great long distance runner, but I'm a runner and I like to run. But I do find that, um, at times I get hurt and I don't understand why and I want to be a better runner. And I think this was a great opportunity to do that. Seeing my video at the end, the comparison of me running at the beginning when one first videotaped me and then at the end, that's a bit mind blowing. I knew there was a difference just in my own body. I could feel the difference, but oftentimes we can't tell until we see from the outside. That's pretty amazing that within an hour he had fundamentally changed the way I run. Um, and hopefully has made a permanent change in the way I will run for the rest of my life. Uh, it was a premise change that, that you, that you manage your in your running gym. So congratulations.
So just keep working on it. Uh, just for the people who are watching, uh, running is the most natural of the human movement. We are made to run. Probably our lifestyle doesn't allow us to run the way we want to run. But with the proper coaching, with Gladys exercises, with conditioning exercises and understanding the particular aspects of running, we all can become much better runners. So it's not about how you have in your food, how you learn. It's a consequence of your posture is a consequence of your movement, your rhythm.
So try to find or try to become a coach to facilitate this amazing, uh, activity to, to your students, to their clients in your studio. And remember that run in is one of the things that you can do to reduce mortality in all courses. So really creates health. It really creates quality of life. And let's make our people too to live their lives, eh? Plenty. So thank you very much for watching.
If you complete this workshop, you will earn:
2.0 credits from Pilates Alliance Australasia (PAA)
The Pilates Alliance Australasia (PAA) is an independent and not-for-profit organization established by the Pilates industry as a regulatory body for control of quality instruction, member support, and integrity within all legitimate approaches to the Pilates Method.
3.0 credits from National Pilates Certification Program (NPCP)
The National Pilates Certification Program is accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA)